Effort-based Tutoring: An Empirical Approach to Intelligent Tutoring
We describe pedagogical and student modeling based on past student interactions with a tutoring system. We model student effort with an integrated view of student behaviors (e.g. timing and help requests in addition to modeling success at solving problems). We argue that methods based on this integrated and empirical view of student effort at individual
items accurately represent the real way that students use tutoring systems. This integrated view helps to discern factors that affect student behavior beyond cognition (e.g., help misuse due to meta-cognitive of affective flaws). We specify parameters to the pedagogical model in detail.